Microbiological-serological-testing-food-chain-industry

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MICROORGANISMS EXPLAINED

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MicroorganismsSourcesIllness CausedPrevention
Listeria monocytogenesProcessed meats, cheeses, fresh produce.Gastroenteritis, septicemia, meningitis, enchephalitis, corneal ulcer, pneumonia.Ensure all surfaces, chopping boards and utensils are disinfected. Personal Hygiene. Store all products separately under the correct conditions. Cook meat products for the appropriate time (don't undercook). Refrigerate products that could spoil before use and wash all fresh produce well before use.
Escherichia coliRaw Dairy Products,Water, Fresh Produce, Ground beef, Pork, Chicken, Sheep.Gastroenteritis(Diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps,fever.)Personal Hygiene, wash fruit and veg well before use, cook meat well. Avoid cross-contamination between different foods - separate them and keep all surfaces, utensils and chopping boards disinfected. Store food that can spoil in the fridge before use.  Don't drink unpasteurised milk or unchlorinated water.
Escherichia coli O157Raw dairy products, water, fresh produce, ground beef, pork, chicken, sheep, person-to-person contact.Gastroenteritis (Diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps, fever.) This organism is heat, drying, freezing and acidic resistant, great care should be taken to prevent possible contamination with or spreading of this organism. Personal Hygiene, wash fruit and veg well before use, cook meat well. Avoid cross-contamination between different foods - separate them and keep all surfaces, utensils and chopping boards disinfected. Store food that can spoil in the fridge before use.  Don't drink unpasteurised milk or unchlorinated water.
ColiformsAquatic environment, soil and plants, faeces of warm-blooded animals, sewage. Meat and fresh produce coming into contact with infected animal faeces.Indicator bacteria, normally not as harmful as other pathogens, but it's presence could indicate the possible presence of other pathogens that could cause gastroenteritis.Wash raw produce well before use, do not drink untreated water and wash hands well after contact with possible contaminated water/sewage. 
Pseudomonas spp.Soil, water, skin, plants.Food spoilage, lung, urinary tract, burn, wound and blood infections.Personal hygiene, wash fruit and veg well before use, cook meat well. Avoid cross-contamination between different foods - separate them and keep all surfaces, utensils and chopping boards disinfected. Store food that can spoil in the fridge before use.  Don't drink untreated water.
EnterobacteriaceaeWater, soil, animals and plants.Gastroenteritis(Diarrhea, severe abdominal cramps, fever.) Personal hygiene, wash fruit and veg well before use, cook meat well. Avoid cross-contamination between different foods - separate them and keep all surfaces, utensils and chopping boards disinfected. Store food that can spoil in the fridge before use.  Don't drink unpasteurised milk or unchlorinated water.
Salmonella spp.Fresh produce, nuts, ground beef, eggs, water. Human, animal and bird faeces and sea turtles.Gastroenteritis, Typhoid fever.Ensure all surfaces, chopping boards and utensils are disinfected. Personal hygiene. Store all products separately under the correct conditions. Cook meat products for the appropriate time (don't undercook). Refrigerate products that could spoil before use and wash all fresh produce well before use. Do not drink untreated water or eat raw eggs.
Staphylococcus aureusSkin, mucous membranes, soil, contaminated food.Food poisoning, skin infections and toxin shock syndrome.Personal hygiene, wash fruit and veg well before use, cook meat well. Avoid cross-contamination between different foods - separate them and keep all surfaces, utensils and chopping boards disinfected. Store food that can spoil in the fridge before use. Wash hands well after contact with infected skin. 
Bacillus cereusFish, meat, desserts, pastas, cheeses, dairy products, rice dishes (especially fried rice)Food poisoning. Vomiting from contaminated rice and diarrhea from other foods.Ensure all surfaces, chopping boards and utensils are disinfected. Personal hygiene. Store all products separately under the correct conditions. Cook meat products for the appropriate time (don't undercook) Refrigerate products that could spoil before use and wash all fresh produce well before use. Do not leave fried rice dishes at room temperature for long periods, as Bacillus cereus is heat stable and it will spoil.
Campylobacter spp.
Raw or undercooked poultry, unpasteurised dairy, water and fresh produce, animals.Food poisoning. Personal hygiene, wash fruit and veg well before use, cook meat well. Avoid cross-contamination between different foods - separate them and keep all surfaces, utensils and chopping boards disinfected. Store food that can spoil in the fridge before use.  Don't drink unpasteurised milk or unchlorinated water.
ShigellaHuman contact, Food products contaminated with faeces. Salads and sanwiches (food that is prepared with a lot of hand contact.)Food poisoning. Personal Hygiene, wash fruit and veg well before use, cook meat well. Avoid cross-contamination between different foods - separate them and keep all surfaces, utensils and chopping boards disinfected. Store food that can spoil in the fridge before use. Wash hands well before working with food and wear gloves if possible.
LactobacillusProcessed dairy products and food supplements.Good bacteria, used in the treatment of stomach ailments or as a supplement during antibiotic therapy to prevent stomach complaints.N/A
MouldFresh produce, nuts, bread and other baked goods.Spoilage of food, stomach upsets, nausea and vomiting.Wash raw produce well before use, cook produce at the required temperature for the required time. Do not eat raw products or baked products that are suspected of being infected.
YeastFresh produce, juices, canned foods.Spoilage of food, spoilage fermentation, nausea and vomiting.Wash raw produce well before use, cook produce at the required temperature for the required time. Do not eat raw products that are suspected of being infected. Can foods into sterile containers at the correct temperature. Do not consume juices or canned foods that are blown up or gassy.
AdenovirusPerson-to-person, faeces, water.Gastro, Respiratory conditions, conjunctivitis.Wash hands well after going to the toilet. Do not touch infected people and do not drink untreated water.
ReovirusBirds, chicken, fish, pets.Gastro, Respiratory conditions.Wash hands well after going to the toilet. Cook food at the required temperature for the required time before consumption. 


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